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WAEC GCE 2017 Runz: Verified History OBJ And Essay Answers

WAEC GCE 2017 Runz: Verified History OBJ And Essay Answers

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 3)Morocco invasion and conquest of Songhai disturbed peaceful conditions for trade  Tuaregs changed their roles from guiding and guarding to attacking and robbing traders Development of Trans-Atlantic trade along the coast of West Africa attracted trade southwards Right Arrow Icon Europeans scramble and partition of West and North Africa reduced interregional links Anti- slave trade pressure from Britain and its abolition undermined the tradeb)

 ------------------------------------------- No5

 1)The first negative effect of trans-Atlantic slave trade on Nigeria was ethnic fragmentation

2)The second negative effect of trans-Atlantic slave trade on Nigeria was weakening and fragmentation of Nigerian States.

3)Another negative impact of trans-Atlantic slave trade on Nig was deterioration of the established legal institutions.

 4)The trans-Atlantic slave trade negatively affected Nigeria by causing displacement of many communities.

5)e slave trade led to stagnation of economic development in most of the African States, ---------------------------------------------

 6) Cities in Niger delta that had trade link.... Opobo Bonny Nembe ------------------------------------ Section

c 9) Herbert Macaulay: Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe: Chief Obafemi Awolowo:


 No 11 section c

 I) Now, there is no doubt about the historic importance of the 1914 amalgamation in Nigeria’s history.

It was the first time that the British colonial administration in Nigeria tried to bring the culturally diverse people of Nigeria together under one central colonial administration.

Without the amalgamation Nigeria would not have developed or emerged as one country. Instead, we would now have two, or possibly three, different countries. But the manner in which these celebrations take place is equally important.

 The question is why should we, as a nation be seen to be celebrating the 1914 so-called ‘amalgamation’ of Nigeria by the British colonial power? The Federal Government argues that Nigeria is not a historical accident and, having existed for nearly 100 years as a country, merits celebration. It is important that we get Nigeria’s colonial history right.

If we do, it will be obvious to us that we should not be celebrating such a dubious event in our colonial history, as the ‘amalgamation’ was the direct product of British imperialism in West Africa.

 Ii) To suggest, or argue, as the federal authorities did, that Nigeria is not a historical accident, but a pre-ordained entity is a distortion of Nigeria’s history.

Nothing can be further from the truth. This claim should not go unchallenged, or else we will be creating a false and terrible legacy.

Before British colonialism in Nigeria, several kingdoms such as the Oyo Empire, the Fulani Emirates, and the Benin Kingdom already existed in Nigeria, and might have evolved over time as nation states. It was British imperialism that eventually destroyed these empires.

 Before its independence from British colonial rule in 1960, Nigeria did not exist even as a distinct state, recognised by other foreign states.

 It was only recognised as a mere British colony, a British dependency that, for all practical purposes, did not have any state identity at all. It was simply part of British West Africa, the Southern part of which was for a while governed by British colonial representatives from the old Gold Coast. Its acquisition by Britain as a colonial territory was actually accidental. It was the direct consequence of Anglo-French rivalry for trade and free markets in Africa.

 Iii) Britain was not really looking at the time for new colonies, or territories in West Africa, but for trade and free markets.

In 1861, the British acquired Lagos as a colony after gun boat diplomacy (state terrorism). But in 1865, the report of a parliamentary select committee of the British House of Commons had advised against any further acquisition of colonial territory in West Africa.

The old Gold Coast (now Ghana) and Sierra Leone had already been acquired as British colonies. This report was accepted by the British government and dampened imperialist impulses for a while.

But by 1885, the informal sway exercised by British merchants in the delta area, which led to Jaja of Opobo being exiled from the delta area by the British Consul, had been formalised at the 1885 Berlin Congress that simply divided Africa as spheres of influence of Britain, and the other European powers in Africa.

 Iv) The Africans were neither present at the Berlin Congress nor even consulted about the manner their territories were divided among the European powers. It was a shameful episode in the history of human civilisation, of which even the European colonisers cannot really be proud.

It was just as bad as its precursor, the slave trade.

Northern Nigeria was simply handed over as the Niger Coast Protectorate to the Royal Niger Company, a British chartered trading company operating in Nigeria, in much the same way as large parts of British India were handed over to the British East India Company.

In 1885, the British had proclaimed a Southern Protectorate in Southern Nigeria after the conclusion of fraudulent and unequal treaties with the Obas there. In 1900, the two protectorates of Northern Nigeria and Southern Nigeria, as well as the colony of Lagos, were separate entities.

 As at that point, there were three separate British dependencies in the territory that was later named as Nigeria, by Flora Shaw, the wife of Lord Lugard, and colonial editor of the London Times, with extensive connections in Whitehall. V) Sir Frederick (later Lord) Lugard was to play a key role in Nigeria’s subsequent colonial history.

 He had originally being brought to Northern Nigeria in 1895 from Uganda for military campaigns by George Goldie of the chartered Royal Niger Company and was the man who conquered Northern Nigeria militarily.

Sokoto, the seat of the caliphate, was the last Northern territory conquered by the British in 1903. His military campaign in Northern Nigeria included his famous march to Borgu and the race to Nikki which formed the basis of British claims to Northern Nigeria.

It was as a result of his successful military campaign in the North that on January 1, 1900, he was appointed the first British High Commissioner for Northern Nigeria, after the administration of the area by the Royal Niger Company had been brought to an end and a British protectorate formally established there.

This was some 15 years after a separate and distinct British protectorate had been established in Southern Nigeria.

 Theory completed ✔✔✔✔

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